New Papers in Consciousness Studies 3

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-jurue-102d610

Today I’m looking at:

Raccah, Block, & Fox (2021). Does the Prefrontal Cortex Play an Essential Role in Consciousness? Insights from Intracranial Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 41(10), 2076–2087.

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“Personality and birth order in large families.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-y3gwb-101d71c

Textbooks make claims like:

“Dixon [et al] studied 361 siblings belonging to large families and found that younger siblings were significantly more extraverted in terms of sociability compared to older siblings.”

Should we believe them? I look at:

Dixon, Reyes, Leppert, & Pappas (2008). Personality and birth order in large families. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(1), 119–128.

To see

 

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“Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-yib65-f96a4c

Textbooks make claims like:

“The use of [child directed speech] makes it easier for infants to make a number of important speech discriminations. The exaggerated intonation of [child directed speech] and longer pauses between words also facilitates speech segmentation and discrimination between vowel sounds.”

Should you believe them? We look at:

Trainor, L. J., & Desjardins, R. N. (2002). Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(2), 335–340.

To find out

 

 

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“Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-nhsuz-f0b52e

This week we continue our look at the development of cognition by considering the nature of children’s concept of LIFE in different cultural settings in the US.

Medin, Waxman, Woodring, & Washinawatok (2010). Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities. Cognitive Development, 25(3), 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2010.02.001

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“Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-55uae-e6587f

Textbooks make claims like:

 

“The ultimate check of the strength of inhered factors would seem to be to compare identical twins who have been separated and brought up in different family environments. Bouchard et al located over 100 such twin pair adults who had been separated infancy and measured them on standard IQ tests. They found that the correlation between twin pairs was 0.76. While this is somewhat lower than that found for monozygotic twins reared together (r=.85), it was nevertheless higher than found for dizygotic twins reared together (r=.55). This provided strong evidence that heredity contributes substantially to IQ and that the more similar environments normally experienced by monozygotic twins cannot account for the higher correlation between identical twins than between fraternal twins.”

 

Should you believe this? I examine

Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, & Tellegen (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250(4978), 223–228

To find out

 

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“The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants”

https://www.podbean.com/media/player/3e83i-de5b5e&?from=usersite&vjs=1&skin=9&fonts=Helvetica&auto=0&download=1

Should we believe textbooks when they make claims like ” where people have a strong national identity, they may be more likely to have negative attitudes toward groups they perceive as different to themselves.” I look at:

Falomir-Pichastor, & Frederic (2013). The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), 72–79.

to find out.

Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-8knns-dd9b38

Textbooks say things like: “the majority of participants sacrificed more money to reduce the stranger’s pain than their own pain.” Are they right?

Crockett, Kurth-Nelson, Siegel, Dayan, & Dolan (2014). Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17320–17325.

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“Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-zapyy-dcd0b7

This week I look at evidence for the effect of class on cognitive dissonance from 

Clémence (1990). Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20(6), 525–529.

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“Response to Tricyclic Antidepressants: Independent of Gender?”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-6nhjg-dc0288

Textbooks make claims like: “Males and females may respond in about the same way to tricyclic antidepressants,” should we believe this? 

 

Wohlfarth, Storosum, Elferink, van Zwieten,, Fouwels, & van den Brink, W. (2004). Response to Tricyclic Antidepressants: Independent of Gender? American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(2), 370–372.

 

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Sadder and less accurate? False memory for negative material in depression.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-fmtfk-db4f86

Today we look at evidence that people suffering major depressive disorder are more likely to create certain false memories.

Joormann, Teachman, & Gotlib, (2009). Sadder and less accurate? False memory for negative material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(2), 412–417.

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