“Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-nhsuz-f0b52e

This week we continue our look at the development of cognition by considering the nature of children’s concept of LIFE in different cultural settings in the US.

Medin, Waxman, Woodring, & Washinawatok (2010). Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities. Cognitive Development, 25(3), 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2010.02.001

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“Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-55uae-e6587f

Textbooks make claims like:

 

“The ultimate check of the strength of inhered factors would seem to be to compare identical twins who have been separated and brought up in different family environments. Bouchard et al located over 100 such twin pair adults who had been separated infancy and measured them on standard IQ tests. They found that the correlation between twin pairs was 0.76. While this is somewhat lower than that found for monozygotic twins reared together (r=.85), it was nevertheless higher than found for dizygotic twins reared together (r=.55). This provided strong evidence that heredity contributes substantially to IQ and that the more similar environments normally experienced by monozygotic twins cannot account for the higher correlation between identical twins than between fraternal twins.”

 

Should you believe this? I examine

Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, & Tellegen (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250(4978), 223–228

To find out

 

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“The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants”

https://www.podbean.com/media/player/3e83i-de5b5e&?from=usersite&vjs=1&skin=9&fonts=Helvetica&auto=0&download=1

Should we believe textbooks when they make claims like ” where people have a strong national identity, they may be more likely to have negative attitudes toward groups they perceive as different to themselves.” I look at:

Falomir-Pichastor, & Frederic (2013). The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), 72–79.

to find out.

Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-8knns-dd9b38

Textbooks say things like: “the majority of participants sacrificed more money to reduce the stranger’s pain than their own pain.” Are they right?

Crockett, Kurth-Nelson, Siegel, Dayan, & Dolan (2014). Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17320–17325.

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“Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-zapyy-dcd0b7

This week I look at evidence for the effect of class on cognitive dissonance from 

Clémence (1990). Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20(6), 525–529.

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“Response to Tricyclic Antidepressants: Independent of Gender?”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-6nhjg-dc0288

Textbooks make claims like: “Males and females may respond in about the same way to tricyclic antidepressants,” should we believe this? 

 

Wohlfarth, Storosum, Elferink, van Zwieten,, Fouwels, & van den Brink, W. (2004). Response to Tricyclic Antidepressants: Independent of Gender? American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(2), 370–372.

 

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Sadder and less accurate? False memory for negative material in depression.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-fmtfk-db4f86

Today we look at evidence that people suffering major depressive disorder are more likely to create certain false memories.

Joormann, Teachman, & Gotlib, (2009). Sadder and less accurate? False memory for negative material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(2), 412–417.

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Effects of appearance-based admonitions against sun exposure on tanning intentions in young adults.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-gu48t-da89fb

Textbooks say that telling people about how tanning makes them less attractive reduces tanning and associated risks. Are they right?

Jones & Leary (1994). Effects of appearance-based admonitions against sun exposure on tanning intentions in young adults. Health Psychology, 13, 86–90.

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Self-awareness and other-awareness: Mirror self-recognition and synchronic imitation among unfamiliar peers.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-9x3m2-d9daa4

Does awareness of oneself as a distinct entity tend to come with awareness of others as other people?

Asendorpf & Baudonnière (1993). Self-awareness and other-awareness: Mirror self-recognition and synchronic imitation among unfamiliar peers. Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 88-95

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The development of children’s knowledge about inner speech

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-y9a5v-d9223d

Textbooks claim: “preschoolers do not recognise the importance of ‘inner speech’ — using words inside one’s head — while performing tasks such as mental arithmetic.” Should we believe them?

 

Flavell, Green, Flavell, & Grossman, (1997). The development of children’s knowledge about inner speech. Child Development, 68(1), 39–47.

 

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