New Papers in Consciousness Studies 3

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-jurue-102d610

Today I’m looking at:

Raccah, Block, & Fox (2021). Does the Prefrontal Cortex Play an Essential Role in Consciousness? Insights from Intracranial Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 41(10), 2076–2087.

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“Personality and birth order in large families.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-y3gwb-101d71c

Textbooks make claims like:

“Dixon [et al] studied 361 siblings belonging to large families and found that younger siblings were significantly more extraverted in terms of sociability compared to older siblings.”

Should we believe them? I look at:

Dixon, Reyes, Leppert, & Pappas (2008). Personality and birth order in large families. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(1), 119–128.

To see

 

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“Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-yib65-f96a4c

Textbooks make claims like:

“The use of [child directed speech] makes it easier for infants to make a number of important speech discriminations. The exaggerated intonation of [child directed speech] and longer pauses between words also facilitates speech segmentation and discrimination between vowel sounds.”

Should you believe them? We look at:

Trainor, L. J., & Desjardins, R. N. (2002). Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants’ ability to discriminate vowels. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(2), 335–340.

To find out

 

 

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New Papers in Consciousness Studies 1

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-n3sdz-f29867

Today we’re starting a new series, with a rather different focus. Everyday interesting, important, inc-or cool papers on consciousness are coming out, and it’s impossible to keep up with them all. In this series I’ll pick out papers that look exciting to me as they go to press, and give them a quick once over for us.

 

The first paper is:

 

Gallagher, Colzi, & Sedda (in press 2021). Dissociation of proprioceptive drift and feelings of ownership in the somatic rubber hand illusion. Acta Psychologica, 212, 103192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2020.103192

 

In the show I mention Irvine’s eliminativism about consciousness which you can read about:

Irvine, E. (2012). Consciousness As a Scientific Concept: A Philosophy of Science Perspective. Springer Science & Business Media.

Irvine, E. (2017). Explaining What? Topoi, 36(1), 95–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11245-014-9273-4

 

For an introduction to conceptual and quality spaces:

Clark, A. (1993). Sensory Qualities. Clarendon Library of Logic and Philosophy.

Gärdenfors, P. (2000). Conceptual spaces: The geomentry of thought. The MIT Press.

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“Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-nhsuz-f0b52e

This week we continue our look at the development of cognition by considering the nature of children’s concept of LIFE in different cultural settings in the US.

Medin, Waxman, Woodring, & Washinawatok (2010). Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities. Cognitive Development, 25(3), 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2010.02.001

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“No Compelling Evidence That Newborns Imitate Oral Gestures.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-8usej-ea814d

Do newborn babies imitate facial expressions of adults? Some say yes, but:

 

Anisfeld, Turkewitz, Rose, Rosenberg, Sheiber, Couturier‐Fagan, Ger, & Sommer, (2001). No Compelling Evidence That Newborns Imitate Oral Gestures. Infancy, 2(1), 111–122.

 

Didn’t find that they do.

 

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“Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-55uae-e6587f

Textbooks make claims like:

 

“The ultimate check of the strength of inhered factors would seem to be to compare identical twins who have been separated and brought up in different family environments. Bouchard et al located over 100 such twin pair adults who had been separated infancy and measured them on standard IQ tests. They found that the correlation between twin pairs was 0.76. While this is somewhat lower than that found for monozygotic twins reared together (r=.85), it was nevertheless higher than found for dizygotic twins reared together (r=.55). This provided strong evidence that heredity contributes substantially to IQ and that the more similar environments normally experienced by monozygotic twins cannot account for the higher correlation between identical twins than between fraternal twins.”

 

Should you believe this? I examine

Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, & Tellegen (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250(4978), 223–228

To find out

 

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“Defending the semantic conception of computation in cognitive science.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-rpqgv-e5745d

One popular response to the “chinese room” thought experiment is to offer a broader notion of computation, one that doesn’t depend on rules manipulating syntax. What alternative is there, and what is the argument for it? I examine:

 

O’Brien (2011). Defending the semantic conception of computation in cognitive science. Journal of Cognitive Science, 12, 381–399.

 

to find out.

 

Join the conversation:

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“The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants”

https://www.podbean.com/media/player/3e83i-de5b5e&?from=usersite&vjs=1&skin=9&fonts=Helvetica&auto=0&download=1

Should we believe textbooks when they make claims like ” where people have a strong national identity, they may be more likely to have negative attitudes toward groups they perceive as different to themselves.” I look at:

Falomir-Pichastor, & Frederic (2013). The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), 72–79.

to find out.