“Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-nhsuz-f0b52e

This week we continue our look at the development of cognition by considering the nature of children’s concept of LIFE in different cultural settings in the US.

Medin, Waxman, Woodring, & Washinawatok (2010). Human-centeredness is Not a Universal Feature of Young Children’s Reasoning: Culture and Experience Matter When Reasoning About Biological Entities. Cognitive Development, 25(3), 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2010.02.001

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“No Compelling Evidence That Newborns Imitate Oral Gestures.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-8usej-ea814d

Do newborn babies imitate facial expressions of adults? Some say yes, but:

 

Anisfeld, Turkewitz, Rose, Rosenberg, Sheiber, Couturier‐Fagan, Ger, & Sommer, (2001). No Compelling Evidence That Newborns Imitate Oral Gestures. Infancy, 2(1), 111–122.

 

Didn’t find that they do.

 

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“Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-55uae-e6587f

Textbooks make claims like:

 

“The ultimate check of the strength of inhered factors would seem to be to compare identical twins who have been separated and brought up in different family environments. Bouchard et al located over 100 such twin pair adults who had been separated infancy and measured them on standard IQ tests. They found that the correlation between twin pairs was 0.76. While this is somewhat lower than that found for monozygotic twins reared together (r=.85), it was nevertheless higher than found for dizygotic twins reared together (r=.55). This provided strong evidence that heredity contributes substantially to IQ and that the more similar environments normally experienced by monozygotic twins cannot account for the higher correlation between identical twins than between fraternal twins.”

 

Should you believe this? I examine

Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, & Tellegen (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250(4978), 223–228

To find out

 

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“Defending the semantic conception of computation in cognitive science.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-rpqgv-e5745d

One popular response to the “chinese room” thought experiment is to offer a broader notion of computation, one that doesn’t depend on rules manipulating syntax. What alternative is there, and what is the argument for it? I examine:

 

O’Brien (2011). Defending the semantic conception of computation in cognitive science. Journal of Cognitive Science, 12, 381–399.

 

to find out.

 

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Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-8knns-dd9b38

Textbooks say things like: “the majority of participants sacrificed more money to reduce the stranger’s pain than their own pain.” Are they right?

Crockett, Kurth-Nelson, Siegel, Dayan, & Dolan (2014). Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17320–17325.

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“Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-zapyy-dcd0b7

This week I look at evidence for the effect of class on cognitive dissonance from 

Clémence (1990). Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20(6), 525–529.

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“Response to Tricyclic Antidepressants: Independent of Gender?”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-6nhjg-dc0288

Textbooks make claims like: “Males and females may respond in about the same way to tricyclic antidepressants,” should we believe this? 

 

Wohlfarth, Storosum, Elferink, van Zwieten,, Fouwels, & van den Brink, W. (2004). Response to Tricyclic Antidepressants: Independent of Gender? American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(2), 370–372.

 

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Sadder and less accurate? False memory for negative material in depression.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-fmtfk-db4f86

Today we look at evidence that people suffering major depressive disorder are more likely to create certain false memories.

Joormann, Teachman, & Gotlib, (2009). Sadder and less accurate? False memory for negative material in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(2), 412–417.

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