“Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.”

Source: “Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.”

Textbooks make claims like:

 

“The ultimate check of the strength of inhered factors would seem to be to compare identical twins who have been separated and brought up in different family environments. Bouchard et al located over 100 such twin pair adults who had been separated infancy and measured them on standard IQ tests. They found that the correlation between twin pairs was 0.76. While this is somewhat lower than that found for monozygotic twins reared together (r=.85), it was nevertheless higher than found for dizygotic twins reared together (r=.55). This provided strong evidence that heredity contributes substantially to IQ and that the more similar environments normally experienced by monozygotic twins cannot account for the higher correlation between identical twins than between fraternal twins.”

 

Should you believe this? I examine

Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, & Tellegen (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250(4978), 223–228

To find out

 

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“Defending the semantic conception of computation in cognitive science.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-rpqgv-e5745d

One popular response to the “chinese room” thought experiment is to offer a broader notion of computation, one that doesn’t depend on rules manipulating syntax. What alternative is there, and what is the argument for it? I examine:

 

O’Brien (2011). Defending the semantic conception of computation in cognitive science. Journal of Cognitive Science, 12, 381–399.

 

to find out.

 

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“Second Meditation: The nature of the human mind, and how it is better known than the body.”

Descartes “Second Meditation: The nature of the human mind, and how it is better known than the body.” Translated by John Cottingham (1996) in Meditations of First Philosophy with selections from the objections and replies. Published by Cambridge University Press.

The second meditation provides an argument for substance dualism. What is it? How does it work?

“The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants”

https://www.podbean.com/media/player/3e83i-de5b5e&?from=usersite&vjs=1&skin=9&fonts=Helvetica&auto=0&download=1

Should we believe textbooks when they make claims like ” where people have a strong national identity, they may be more likely to have negative attitudes toward groups they perceive as different to themselves.” I look at:

Falomir-Pichastor, & Frederic (2013). The dark side of heterogeneous ingroup identities: National identification, perceived threat, and prejudice against immigrants. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), 72–79.

to find out.

Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making.

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-8knns-dd9b38

Textbooks say things like: “the majority of participants sacrificed more money to reduce the stranger’s pain than their own pain.” Are they right?

Crockett, Kurth-Nelson, Siegel, Dayan, & Dolan (2014). Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17320–17325.

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“Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity.”

https://www.podbean.com/media/share/pb-zapyy-dcd0b7

This week I look at evidence for the effect of class on cognitive dissonance from 

Clémence (1990). Effect of social-class belonging on the cognitive dissonance resulting from threat severity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20(6), 525–529.

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